European consumers show growing interest in Electric Vehicles

The European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) has published its latest Consumer Monitor report, offering an in-depth look into the trends, challenges, and opportunities surrounding electric vehicle (EV) adoption across Europe. Conducted in collaboration with the VUB-MOBI e-Mobility Research Centre and FIER, the survey aggregated responses from 19.080 participants across twelve EU countries, providing a comprehensive snapshot of the current landscape of battery electric vehicle (BEV) usage and potential growth.

Growing Interest in Electric Vehicles

The survey results reveal a growing interest in electric vehicles among European drivers, despite ongoing challenges. A notable 37% of non-BEV European drivers expressed interest in switching to electric vehicles, with 29% already familiar with them. This interest is set against the backdrop of the European Green Deal, which aims for a 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transport by 2050. However, the survey indicates that only 33% of non-BEV drivers are considering purchasing a BEV within the next five years, underscoring the need for targeted strategies to boost adoption.

Pie chart showing the time frame EU non-BEV drivers plan to buy an electric vehicle: 33% (0-5 years), 25% (not buying), 18% (10+ years), 14% (5-10 years), and 10% (unsure).
Source: EAFO

Main Barriers to Adoption

The report identifies three main barriers to widespread BEV adoption: high purchase prices, limited charging infrastructure, and concerns about driving range. While significant strides have been made, such as a 90% drop in battery costs and increased vehicle ranges, BEVs still represent only 1,68% of the EU’s total passenger car fleet. The existing charging infrastructure, though expanding, remains insufficient in many regions. As of 2023, there were 550.517 slow public charge points and 81.737 fast public ones across the EU, highlighting the critical need for continued infrastructure development.

Consumer Profiles and Financial Considerations

Demographic data from the survey paints a clear picture of the typical BEV driver: a middle-aged man with higher education and income levels, living in a detached house. In contrast, non-BEV drivers tend to be more diverse, including a higher proportion of women, a broader age range, and varied education levels, often residing in apartments. These insights are crucial for tailoring policies and marketing strategies to address the specific needs and concerns of different consumer groups.

Financial considerations play a significant role in BEV adoption. On average, European consumers are willing to pay €20.000 for a BEV, compared to €15.000 for an internal combustion engine vehicle. Desired driving ranges vary, with 47% of respondents preferring a range of 500 km or more, reflecting a demand for BEVs that can handle longer journeys without frequent charging.

Importance of Government Incentives

Government incentives emerge as a pivotal factor in encouraging BEV uptake. Subsidies for purchasing new and used BEVs, tax exemptions, and support for installing home charging stations were identified as the most effective incentives. However, the survey also revealed a gap in awareness, with 33% of drivers unaware of any available subsidies in their countries. This highlights the need for enhanced communication and awareness campaigns to maximise the impact of these incentives.

Charging Behaviour and Public Infrastructure

Charging behaviour among BEV drivers shows a strong preference for home charging, with private charging stations or wallboxes being the most frequently used. Public charge points are less commonly utilised, with only 10% of BEV drivers using fast public chargers on a daily or weekly basis. The survey underscores the importance of having fully operational charging stations, minimal waiting times, and transparent pricing to improve the public charging experience.

Bar chart illustrating recharging locations and frequency of use by EU BEV drivers, highlighting that private home recharging stations are most frequently used, while semi-public and workplace recharging stations are least frequently used.
Source: EAFO

Future Trends: Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Technology

Looking ahead, the report highlights growing interest in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, which allows BEVs to interact with the power grid. Approximately 44% of BEV drivers are aware of V2G, and 68% expressed interest in purchasing a V2G-capable vehicle. Key factors driving this interest include the ability to use the vehicle’s battery to power homes and a purchase price comparable to current BEVs.


In summary, the 2023 EAFO Consumer Monitor report offers valuable insights into the current state and future potential of electric vehicle adoption in Europe. While there is a clear interest in BEVs, addressing the identified barriers and enhancing consumer awareness and infrastructure support will be essential to achieving the ambitious targets set by the European Green Deal. The full report, available on the EAFO website, provides detailed data and analysis to inform policymakers, industry stakeholders, and consumers, facilitating the transition towards sustainable and intelligent transport systems across Europe.

Source: EAFO

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